Basic Parts of Computer and their Various Functions

Understanding Basic Parts of Computer and Its Working Principles

From a broader perspective, when you look at the Personal Computers or PCs, few Basic Parts of Computer float before your eyes.

Every student of computer should be well versed with these Basic Parts of Computer before he or she plunges into the deep sea of computer knowledge to swim into the high tides of noetic waves.
The Basic Parts of Computer and its functions are as follows:-

Computer Hardware
1.  Cabinet 
2.  SMPS or Power Supply Unit 
3.  Motherboard with following components embedded on it.

  • Chipset
  • CPU or Central Processing Unit
  • Math Co-Processor
  • RAM/ ROM Bios
  • CGA/ VGA Adaptor Card/ Integrated Display Unit
  • USB/ Serial/ Parellel/ RS-232/ LAN/ Game ports
  • Bus or Expansion Slots

4.  FDD or Foppy Disc Drive (Almost Obsolete) 

5.  HDD or Hard Disc Drive 
6.  CD/DVD ROM/ Blueray Drive 
7.  Input Devices: Keyboard / Mouse/ Scanner/ Webcam/ Mic 
8.  Output Devices: Monitor/ Printer/ Speakers/ Headphones


 Various Functions of Computer Hardware

Inside the Cabinet, one can identify 5-6 Basic Parts of Computer.These are visible when the cabinet is open.
These units mainly include the Motherboard, The Power Supply Unit, CPU, RAM, HDD and DVD Drive.
The motherboard, as the name signifies, is the main interconnecting board for different units of the computer. Apart from joining various units of a computing system, the motherboard facilitates the flow of required power supply for the different units and provides the required signal flow for data processing.
How data is processed inside the CPU is entirely a different topic and I will deal with it separately in my following blogs, however, for the understanding of Basic Parts of Computer, we must concentrate on fundamentals.
On motherboard unit, we can find different sub-units embedded or installed on it.
They include the RAM modules required for meeting the memory needs for processing, the embedded ROM device, helps in providing the BIOS services.
The CPU along with its Math Coprocessor is used for data processing task, the integrated display chips or the VGA adapter etc are responsible for meeting the display requirements on the monitor.
Different port like USB/ Serial/ Parallel/ RS-232/ LAN/ Game ports helps in connecting the input or output devices like pen drives, mouse, printer or internet cables etc.
The FDD, HDD, CD ROM drives etc are required as Storage devices for the memory needs of the computer, whereas Input and Output devices are needed for the smooth functioning of the computer for meeting its performance related task. 
These are the Basic Parts of Computer of a standalone computer. The detailed description of each and further components of Computer Hardware can be studied in depth by going through the specifics of each of the modules.
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